Sitikufunanso chowonadi, tikungofuna zotsimikizika, malinga ndi Hannah Arendt

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Chowonadi cha pambuyo pake ndi malo oterera omwe mfundo zenizeni zimakopa malingaliro a anthu mochepera pamalingaliro ndi zikhulupiriro zamunthu. Dera lomwe chowonadi chimapereka njira ku zomverera, zodziwikiratu, malingaliro komanso, zowonadi, kuma media, kusintha kwa ndale ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu. Relativism imapambana m'gawoli pomwe malire a chowonadi ndi bodza amabisika mowopsa.

Izi sizachilendo. Kale pasanakhale nkhani za pambuyo pa chowonadi kapena ngakhale lingaliro lidapangidwa, Hannah Arendt anali atatchula kale za defactualization, zomwe zikanakhala kulephera kusiyanitsa zenizeni ndi zopeka. Mu 1971 adafalitsa nkhani yakuti "Bodza mu ndale" (yabodza ndale), zomwe iye analemba - pakati pa mkwiyo ndi kukhumudwa - atangomaliza kumene Pentagon Papers pa ulamuliro wa Nixon ndi momwe amachitira nkhondo ya Vietnam.

Kenako anati: "Moyo wathu watsiku ndi tsiku nthawi zonse umakhala pachiwopsezo cholasiridwa ndi mabodza amunthu aliyense kapena kupatulidwa ndi mabodza opangidwa ndi magulu, mayiko kapena magulu, komanso kukana kapena kupotoza, komwe nthawi zambiri kumaphimbidwa mosamala ndi milu ya mabodza kapena kungosiyidwa kuti aiwale. " .

De-factualization, chiopsezo chosintha mfundo kukhala malingaliro

"Nkhani yabwino ya boma lachipongwe si chipani cha Nazi kapena Chikomyunizimu chodzipereka, koma anthu omwe kusiyana pakati pa zenizeni ndi zopeka komanso kusiyana pakati pa zoona ndi zabodza sikuliponso". Arendt akufotokoza.

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Mwachilengedwe, “Kusiyana kumeneku sikungowonongeka mwadzidzidzi, koma kumaonekera, mwa zina, chifukwa cha bodza losalekeza lakuti: ‘Chotulukapo cha kusinthidwa kosalekeza ndi kotheratu kwa bodza ndi chowonadi chenicheni sichikutanthauza kuti bodza likuvomerezedwa tsopano monga chowonadi ndi kuikiridwa mwano. ngati bodza, koma izi zimawononga malingaliro omwe timakhala nawo mdziko lenileni komanso gulu lachowonadi pokhudzana ndi bodza ”.

Arendt akunena kuti defactualization imachitika pamene titaya mphamvu yosiyanitsa zenizeni ndi zomangamanga, zoona ndi zabodza. Zowonadi, wafilosofiyo amakhazikitsa kusiyana kofunikira pakati pa chowonadi, chomwe chimagwirizana ndi kuwonetsa zenizeni, ndi tanthauzo, lomwe liri logwirizana komanso lopangidwa ndi kutanthauzira kwathu, zomwe zimadalira zikhulupiriro, zomwe zingathe kusinthidwa.

Fotokozani zimenezo "Kufunika kwa kulingalira sikulimbikitsidwa ndi kufunafuna chowonadi koma ndi kufunafuna tanthauzo. Choonadi ndi tanthauzo sizifanana. Ndi kulakwitsa kwakukulu kutanthauzira tanthauzo lachowonadi ”.

Zotsimikizika zimakhala m'malo a tanthauzo, osati chowonadi. Lingaliro lenileni la "chowonadi china" ndi lingaliro lomwe limapangitsa kutsimikizika ndikuwononga chowonadi. Nkhani zabodza za ndale ndi kusokonekera kwa anthu kaŵirikaŵiri zimazikidwa pa kusokonekera kotsimikizirika kumeneku.

Arendt ankakhulupirira kuti n’chifukwa chake n’zosavuta kuti anyenge anthu ambiri. Kwenikweni, “Kunama sikusemphana ndi kulingalira, chifukwa zinthu zikadakhala momwe wabodzayo amanenera. Bodza nthawi zambiri limakhala lomveka bwino, lowoneka bwino pamalingaliro, kuposa zenizeni, popeza wabodza ali ndi mwayi waukulu wodziwiratu zomwe anthu akufuna kapena amayembekezera kumva. Adakonza nkhani yake kuti igwiritsidwe ntchito ndi anthu ndicholinga choti ikhale yodalirika, pomwe zenizeni zimakhala ndi chizolowezi chokumana nafe zosayembekezereka, zomwe sitinakonzekere ”.

Mwa kuyankhula kwina, nthawi zambiri chikhumbo chofuna kukhala ndi zitsimikiziro ndi zogwirira ntchito zokakamira muzochitika zosatsimikizika zimakhala malo abwino oberekera kukula kwa "zinthu zina" zomwe zimapereka mabodza. Mabodzawa ali ndi ntchito yake: amatipangitsa kukhala omasuka. Amatipatsa chitetezo. Amachotsa dissonance ndipo amatilola kupitiriza ndi moyo wathu popanda kuganizira kwambiri. Popanda kufunsa zinthu. Popanda kumva zoipa.

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“M’mikhalidwe yabwinobwino, wabodzayo amathedwa nzeru ndi zenizeni, zimene palibe choloŵa m’malo mwake; Ziribe kanthu kuchuluka kwa bodza komwe munthu wabodza wodziwika bwino amamanga, sikudzakhala kwakukulu kokwanira kubisa kukula kwa zenizeni ", Arendt akuti.

Komabe, nkhondo ikayambika, timakumana ndi mliri kapena tikukumana ndi mavuto azachuma, "zabwinobwino" zomwe Arendt adatchulapo zimasowa kuti pakhale kusatsimikizika kwakukulu. M'menemo timakhala pachiwopsezo chopusitsidwa chifukwa timakonda kukonda kufunafuna chitsimikizo kuposa chowonadi.

Tikhoza kukhulupirira "zinthu zina" zomwe wina amatiuza chifukwa amapewa kulimbikira kufunafuna chowonadi, kutenga udindo komanso kuthana ndi zotsatira zake. Choncho, kwa Arendt, defactualization sikuchitika mbali imodzi, si bodza loperekedwa ndi mphamvu koma bodza logwirizana pakati pa omwe sali okonzeka kukulitsa kuganiza mozama kofunikira kuti afike pachowonadi, omwe sali okonzeka kusintha. mapologalamu anuanu, tulukani anu malo otonthoza kapena kusiya zikhulupiriro zomwe zinalipo kale.



"Zosintha zina sizimangokhala zabodza kapena zabodza, koma zimalankhula za kusintha kwakukulu mu zenizeni zomwe timagawana zomwe timaziwona mopepuka [...] Mphamvu yawo yowononga imakhala yosintha mfundoyo kukhala lingaliro chabe, ndiko kuti, lingaliro mu maganizo odzimvera okha : 'zikuwoneka kwa ine' zomwe zimapitirizabe kukhala opanda chidwi ndi zomwe zikuwoneka kwa ena ". Zowona zimachotsedwa pazowona kuti zilowe m'malo okayikitsa komanso osinthika.

Pomaliza, Arendt akuchenjeza kuti pali mfundo yomwe izi zimatitembenukira: “Nthawi zonse pamafika pamene kunama kumakhala kopanda phindu. Mfundoyi imafika pamene omvera omvera mabodza akukakamizika kunyalanyaza kwathunthu mzere pakati pa choonadi ndi bodza kuti apulumuke.

“Zoona kapena zabodza zimasiya kugwira ntchito ngati moyo wanu umadalira zochita zanu ngati zoona. Ndiye chowonadi chomwe chingadalirike chimazimiririka m'moyo wa anthu onse, ndipo nacho chinthu chachikulu chokhazikika pakusintha kwa anthu ”.

Chitsime:

Arendt, H. (1971) Kunama mu Ndale: Reflections pa Pentagon Papers. Mu: Ndemanga ya New York.

Pakhomo Sitikufunanso chowonadi, tikungofuna zotsimikizika, malinga ndi Hannah Arendt idasindikizidwa koyamba mu Pakona ya Psychology.

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